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Does the Lord require Righteousness by F...

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Many scholars view Abraham’s demonstration of hospitality to strangers (Gn 18:1-15) as a feature of doing righteousness that earns rewards in the form of receiving the promised son (cf. Jarick 2000:86; Gunkel 1997:196; Dilmann 1897:93; Skinner 1980: 298; Wenham 1994:45; Oden 2002:64). In the larger context of “the Fellowship Narrative” (Gn 18:1-15) there are some […]

Concept of Food: Is it Ordinary Food or ...

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The main concern here is to find out the underlying motive for preparing a huge meal. Scholars who hold the opinion that the visit of God indicates a test motive understand Abraham’s preparing of a generous meal as the presentation of welcoming food (~x,l lehem/ daily bread) for ordinary human beings (cf. Dillmann 1897:92-93; Gunkel […]

Motive of God’s Visit: To Test Abraham o

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The third issue to be addressed is the motive of the Lord’s visit in human form. The main concern here is to decide whether the Lord visits Abraham to test the righteousness of his behavior (being hospitable towards unknown visitors) or rather to share covenantal fellowship with Abraham. Scholars who hold the view of Abraham’s […]

The Two Sacrifices of Abraham in Genesis...

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Rabbis have noted similarities between the two chapters and have seen the “sacrifice” of losing Ishmael as a preparation for the greatest test: the near-sacrifice of Isaac. The comparison of both “sacrifices” not only ties the two brothers closer together but can also bring new light and dimension to both stories. Notice some parallels between […]

Ishmael and Isaac

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Since the beginning, Ishmael and Isaac seem to be connected, even in the way their birth is described: So Hagar bore Abram a son; and Abram For Sarah conceived and bore Abraham a named  his  son,  whom  Hagar  bore, son in his old age, at the set time of which Ishmael. Abram was eighty-six years […]

Parallelism: Hagar and Moses

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Back in Genesis 12 Sarah is “sold” into Egypt in order to save Abraham. When Pharaoh finds out the truth he frees Sarah along with slaves and gifts to guard her honor. It is possible that Hagar was received as a slave at this time. Whereas Pharaoh sets Sarah (and Abraham) free from Egypt along […]

The God Who Seeks and Finds

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There are several unique features in this story which help confirm it as a center. This is the first time God reveals himself to a woman, an Egyptian servant. This is the first time that God announces in advance the birth and the name of a child to be blessed. This is the first time […]

God Intervenes

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Hagar fled (barah, Gen 16:6, 8) from Sarah, Israel fled from Egypt (Exod 14:5, 13-15) and God intervened in both instances. This is also the very first instance in Scripture where an Angel of the Lord meets a human being, and Hagar, the Egyptian servant is the chosen one. “Now the Angel of the Lord […]

A Word on Paul’s Reading of Genesis 21

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In his letter to the Galatian believers, Paul faced the challenge of the judaizers who claimed that obeying the mosaic ordinances and precepts was essential to salvation. He chooses an allegory (4:24) to rebut the judaizers. Paul uses Hagar and Sarah as types (Gal 4:21-31) of respectively two covenants: “Mount Sinai” and “Jerusalem above.” Paul’s […]